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  • Getting to Zero Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities: A Comprehensive Approach to a Persistent Problem
    Steven M. Teutsch, Amy Geller, and Yamrot Negussie, Editors; Committee onAccelerating Progress to Reduce Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities; Board onPopulation Health and Public Health Practice; Health and Medicine Division;National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

  • A genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    ​Laura J. Bierut, Arpana Agrawal, Kathleen K. Bucholz, Kimberly F. Doheny, Cathy Laurie, Elizabeth Pugh, Sherri Fisher, Louis Fox, William Howells, Sarah Bertelsen, Anthony L. Hinrichs, Laura Almasy, Naomi Breslau, Robert C. Culverhouse, Danielle M. Dick, Howard J. Edenberg, Tatiana Foroud, Richard A. Grucza, Dorothy Hatsukami, Victor Hesselbrock, Eric O. Johnson, John Kramer, Robert F. Krueger, Samuel Kuperman, Michael Lynskey, Karl Mann, Rosalind J. Neuman, Markus M. Nöthen, John I. Nurnberger, Bernice Porjesz, Monika Ridinger, Nancy L. Saccone, Scott F. Saccone, Marc A. Schuckit, Jay A. Tischfield, Jen C. Wang, Marcella Rietschel, Alison M. Goate, John P. Rice and as part of the Gene, Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Consortium
    PNAS 2010 March, 107 (11) 5082-5087. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0911109107

  • Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, selfselecting online survey

    ​Will Lawn, Jaime E. Hallak, Jose A. Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J. Barratt, Jason A. Ferris, Adam R. Winstock8 & Celia J. A. Morgan. 

    Nature - Scientific Reports | 7: 15201 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-14700-6 .


  • Convergent functional genomic studies of omega-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism

    ​H Le-Niculescu, N J Case, L Hulvershorn, S D Patel, D Bowker, J Gupta, R Bell, H J Edenberg, M T Tsuang, R Kuczenski, M A Geyer, Z A Rodd, and A B Niculescu.

    Transl Psychiatry. 2011 Apr; 1(4): e4.
    Published online 2011 Apr 26. doi:  10.1038/tp.2011.1


  • Lisbon Addictions 2017 - apresentações - álcool

    ​Law of Alcohol – Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers
    Elsa Lavado

    Alcohol marketing: how to regulate? A comparative analysis
    Marieke Vlaemynck
    Attitudes towards alcohol policy across Europe – results of the RARHA SEAS study
    Jacek Moskalewicz

    Alcohol marketing in Portugal: alcohol industry and government strategies in the 21st century
    Hilson Cunha Filho

    Constructing alcohol-related problems – attitudes of social workers and their clients
    Elina Renko

    Emotion, alcohol and addiction
    Salvatore Campanella

    All drinking is not equal: Drinking occasions as the unit of analysis for understanding alcohol consumption
    John Holmes

    Implications of monitoring alcohol marketing for public health and policy
    Carina Ferreira-Borges

    A Comparison between National Guidelines for Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder
    Conor K Farren

    Young adults report increased pleasure from using e-cigarettes and smoking tobacco cigarettes when drinking alcohol
    Johannes Thrul

    Validation of alcohol consumption self-reports in the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI)
    Sören Kuitunen-Paul

    Screening for moderate/high risk alcohol use among opioid dependent patients on buprenorphine maintenance: a clinical and alcohol-biomarker study
    Suresh Thapaliya

    Emotion regulation and cognitive control in alcohol dependence
    Svetlana G. Klimanova

    Neuropsychological performance in patients with SUD with and without mood disorders
    Irma Höijer

    "If the person doesn’t drink they are one person, if they drink they are another". How men in treatment for substance use in England and Brazil account for perpetrating intimate partner violence
    Polly Radcliffe

    Learning from success: The implementation and evaluation of the Israeli national program to reduce problem drinking of alcohol among children and youth 2010-2016
    Yossi Harel-Fisch

    Multi-setting community-based interventions to reduce population level harms arising from alcohol and other drug use
    Emily Stockings

    Is dialectical behavior therapy skills training a therapeutic alternative in alcohol use disorder and personality disorders comorbidity treatment?
    Marco Cavicchioli

    Outpatient addiction treatment for alcohol use disorder: what makes patients who dropped out different from those who did not?
    Vincent Wagner

    Effectiveness of brief intervention for moderate/high risk alcohol use among patients on buprenorphine maintenance: a clinical and alcohol-biomarker study
    Suresh Thapaliya

    Characteristics and significance of professional-led support groups in the treatment of alcoholism
    Ana Opacic, Tereza Oreb

    Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and drug use among school aged children in Algeria

    The social epidemiology of alcohol and drug use among Israeli school-aged children: Recent developments and current challenges
    Yossi Harel-Fisch

    "Drinking occasions" as the unit of analysis for understanding alcohol consumption
    Paul Toner

    Changes in the serum metabolites of tryptophan in abstinent cocaine and alcohol users and their relationship with co-morbid disorders
    Rebeca Vidal

    Stress and neuroimmune response as biomarkers of cocaine and alcohol used disorders
    Marta Rodríguez Arias

    Attentional bias between light and heavy drinking college students
    Alexandra Ghita

    Sensation seeking and adolescent alcohol use: exploring the mediating role of unstructured socializing with peers
    Sharon Sznitman

    Prevention of alcohol abuse in college students
    Carla Adriana Rocha

    Alcohol: raising awareness and action-research on heavy episodic drinking among low income youth and young adults in Southern Europe
    Helena Carvalho

    Associations between personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards substance use among German university students
    Stefanie Maria Helmer

    “Prevalence study, ESPAD 2015” Tentative title: The role of national policies and perceived availability for the use of alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis among European students
    Håkan Leifman

    Alcohol drinking in pregnancy: some predictors among Portuguese women
    Ludmila Carapinha

    Prevalence of drug and alcohol use in somatic healthcare - A cross-sectional comparative study
    Danil Gamboa

    Estimating alcohol annual consumption on the basis of population survey
    Janusz Sieroslawski

    Context Of Daily Drinking In 18 European Countries. Findings Of The RARHA SEAS Project
    Katarzyna Okulicz-Kozaryn

    Energy Drink and Alcohol mixed Energy Drink use among high school adolescents: Association with risk taking behavior, social characteristics.
    Sabrina Molinaro

    Factors Associated With Binge Drinking In Adolescence: Integrative Literature Review
    Tereza Barroso

    The use of alcohol and drugs and its relation to the workplace
    Claudia Urbano

    Breaking Out of the Joint: Cognitive Bias Modification Targeting the Cannabis and Alcohol Consumption of Youth in Juvenile Detention Centers
    Hans van der Baan

    Experiential avoidance and emotional dysregulation as therapeutic dimensions in alcohol use disorder treatment
    Marco Cavicchioli

    Experiences and barriers of female substance users in alcohol and drug prevention and treatment
    Julie Schamp

    The RINCA Study On the Reduction of Negative Consequences associated with heavy drinking
    Josep Guardia-Serecigni

    Alcohol- and drug-related problems among adolescents with psychiatric diagnoses: The role of psychiatric comorbidity.
    Ove Heradstveit

  • The Origin of Spousal Resemblance for Alcohol Use Disorder

    ​Kenneth S. Kendler, MD1; Sara Larsson Lönn, PhD; Jessica Salvatore, PhD; et al

    Importance  Although spouses strongly resemble one another in their risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), the causes of this association remain unclear.

    Objectives  To examine longitudinally, in first marriages, the association of a first registration for AUD in one spouse with risk of registration in his or her partner and to explore changes in the risk for AUD registration in individuals with multiple marriages as they transition from a spouse with AUD to one without or vice versa.


  • Neural Correlates of Alcohol-Approach Bias in Alcohol Addiction: the Spirit is Willing but the Flesh is Weak for Spirits

    Corinde E Wiers, Christine Stelzel, Soyoung Q Park, Christiane K Gawron, Vera U Ludwig, Stefan Gutwinski, Andreas Heinz, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter & Felix Bermpohl 

    Neuropsychopharmacology volume 39, pages 688–697 (2014)

    Behavioral studies have shown an alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients: the automatic tendency to faster approach than avoid alcohol compared with neutral cues, which has been associated with craving and relapse.


  • Alcohol and nicotine codependence-associated DNA methylation changes in promoter regions of addiction-related genes

    ​Hongqin Xu, Fan Wang, Henry R. Kranzler, Joel Gelernter & Huiping Zhang

    Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 41816 (2017)

    Altered DNA methylation in addiction-related genes may modify the susceptibility to alcohol or drug dependence (AD or ND). We profiled peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 addiction-related genes in 256 African Americans (AAs) (117 cases with AD-ND codependence and 139 controls) and 196 European Americans (103 cases with AD-ND codependence and 93 controls) using Illumina’s GoldenGate DNA methylation array assays. 


  • Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    Will Lawn, Jaime E. Hallak, Jose A. Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J. Barratt, Jason A. Ferris, Adam R. Winstock & Celia J. A. Morgan

    Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 15201 (2017)

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901).


  • Bidirectional Modulation of Alcohol-Associated Memory Reconsolidation through Manipulation of Adrenergic Signaling

    ​Moritz J W Schramm, Barry J Everitt & Amy L Milton

    Neuropsychopharmacology volume 41, pages 1103–1111 (2016)

    Alcohol addiction is a problem of great societal concern, for which there is scope to improve current treatments. One potential new treatment for alcohol addiction is based on disrupting the reconsolidation of the maladaptive Pavlovian memories that can precipitate relapse to drug-seeking behavior.


  • Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study

    ​Anya Topiwala, clinical lecturer in old age psychiatry, Charlotte L Allan, academic clinical lecturer in old age psychiatry, Vyara Valkanova, specialist registrar in old age psychiatry, Enikő Zsoldos, postdoctoral scientist, Nicola Filippini, postdoctoral scientist, Claire Sexton, postdoctoral scientist, Abda Mahmood, research assistant, Peggy Fooks, medical student, Archana Singh-Manoux, professor of epidemiology and public health, Clare E Mackay, associate professor,1 Mika Kivimäki, professor, and Klaus P Ebmeier, professor of old age psychiatry.

    Objectives: To investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption has a favourable or adverse association or no association with brain structure and function.


  • Contribution of alcohol use disorders to the burden of dementia in France 2008–13: a nationwide retrospective cohort study

    ​Michaël Schwarzinger, MD'Correspondence information about the author MD Michaël SchwarzingerEmail the author MD Michaël Schwarzinger, Prof Bruce G Pollock, MD, Omer S M Hasan, BA, Carole Dufouil, PhD, Prof Jürgen Rehm, PhD for the show QalyDays Study Group.

    Dementia is a prevalent condition, affecting 5–7% of people aged 60 years and older, and a leading cause of disability in people aged 60 years and older globally. We aimed to examine the association between alcohol use disorders and dementia risk, with an emphasis on early-onset dementia (<65 years).


  • The Role of Aging, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Comorbidity in Alcoholism Cortical Compromise

    ​Edith V. Sullivan, PhD1; Natalie M. Zahr, PhD1,2; Stephanie A. Sassoon, PhD; et al

    What is the pattern of alcoholism-associated cortical volume deficits, and are they accelerated with aging or augmented by drug dependence or hepatitis C virus infection comorbidity in alcohol-dependent men and women spanning adulthood?


  • Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School AdolescentsFive-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ​Nancy A. Gonzales, PhD; Michaeline Jensen, PhD; Jenn Yun Tein, PhD; et al

    Can a universal middle school intervention reduce alcohol misuse and risk for alcohol use disorders for Mexican American adolescents in high school?


  • Alcohol Text Messages: A Developmental Study

    ​Maryanne RobinsonEmail authorR. B. WilkinsonR. FletcherR. BrunoA. L. BakerL. MaherJ. WroeA. J. Dunlop

    Risky paternal alcohol use is associated with maternal alcohol use during pregnancy, poor fetal and infant outcomes, domestic violence and depression. This study developed 30 SMS text messages about alcohol for fathers who drink at risky levels. The text messages were developed using two motivational styles: messages presented in a second person voice and the same messages presented in a child’s voice.


  • Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies

    ​Low-risk  limits  recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality  and  cardiovascular  disease,  we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease.


  • Entorno urbano de alcohol: un estudio sobre disponibilidad, promoción y visibilidad del consumo en barrios de Barcelona

    ​Joan R. Villalbí, Albert Espelt, Xisca Sureda, Marina Bosque-Prous, Ester Teixidó-Compañó, Susanna Puigcorbé, Manuel Franco, M. Teresa Brugal.

    Se describe la presencia de alcohol en el espacio público, valorando los establecimientos que lo ofrecen, la publicidad, y los indicios de consumo, como factores que pueden inducir el consumo.


  • ‘Nothing can be done until everything is done’: the use of complexity arguments by food, beverage, alcohol and gambling industries

    ​Mark Petticrew,  Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi,  Cécile Knai, Rebecca Cassidy, Nason Maani Hessari,
    James Thomas,  Heide Weishaar.

    Corporations use a range of strategies to dispute their role in causing public health harms and to limit the scope of effective public health interventions. 


  • Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data

    ​ Dr Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, FFPH, Elise Whitley, PhD, Jim Lewsey, PhD, Linsay Gray, PhD, Prof Alastair H Leyland, PhD.

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors.


  • Do women with complex alcohol and other drug use histories want women-only residential treatment?

    Joanne Neale, Charlotte N. E. Tompkins , Alison D. Marshall, Carla Treloar & John Strang

    Background: Women-only addiction services tend to be provided on a poorly evidenced assumption that women want single-sex treatment. We draw upon women’s expectations and experiences of women-only residential rehabilitation to
    stimulate debate on this issue.​


  • Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits

    Rafael Renteria, Emily T. Baltz & Christina M. Gremel

    Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction.


  • The neural correlates of the unified percept of alcohol-related craving: a fMRI and EEG study

    ​Yuefeng Huang, Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Stefan Sunaert & Sven Vanneste

    Alcohol addiction is accompanied by aberrant neural activity. Previously, task-based fMRI and resting-state EEG studies have revealed that craving, a critical component of addiction, is linked to abnormal activity in cortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), etc. In this study, we combine these two imaging techniques to investigate a group of alcohol-addicted patients and provide convergent evidence for the neural correlates of craving not only in alcohol but substance abuse in general.


  • Proteomic Approaches and Identification of Novel Therapeutic Targets for Alcoholism

    ​Giorgio Gorini, R Adron Harris & R Dayne Mayfield

    Recent studies have shown that gene regulation is far more complex than previously believed and does not completely explain changes at the protein level. Therefore, the direct study of the proteome, considerably different in both complexity and dynamicity to the genome/transcriptome, has provided unique insights to an increasing number of researchers.


  • Association of State Alcohol Policies With Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Among US Adults

    ​Timothy S. Naimi, MD, MPH; Ziming Xuan, ScD, SM; Vishnudas Sarda, MBBS, MPH; et al

    This repeated cross-sectional study examined the association between an aggregate measure of state alcohol policies and 505 614 adult motor vehicle crash fatalities in the United States from 2000 to 2015. A 10–percentage point increase in the restrictiveness of the state alcohol policy environment was associated with a 10% reduced odds that a crash fatality was alcohol related; policies were similarly protective for alcohol involvement at blood alcohol levels below 0.08% (the current legal limit in the United States).


  • Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism

    ​Elise E DeVito, Shashwath A Meda, Rachel Jiantonio, Marc N Potenza, John H Krystal & Godfrey D Pearlson.

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females.


  • Neural connectivity in Internet gaming disorder and alcohol use disorder: A resting-state EEG coherence study

    Su Mi Park, Ji Yoon Lee, Yeon Jin Kim, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Yeon Jung, Bo Kyung Sohn, Dai Jin Kim & Jung-Seok Choi.

    The present study compared neural connectivity and the level of phasic synchronization between neural populations in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) coherence analyses.
  • Epidemiology of DSM-5 Alcohol Use DisorderResults From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III

    ​Bridget F. Grant, PhD1; Risë B. Goldstein, PhD, MPH1; Tulshi D. Saha, PhD1; et al

    National epidemiologic information from recently collected data on the new DSM-5 classification of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using a reliable, valid, and uniform data source is needed.
  • Alcohol intake and semen variables: cross‐sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study of men referring to an Italian Fertility Clinic

    ​E. Ricci, S. Noli, S. Ferrari, I. La Vecchia, S. Cipriani, V. De Cosmi, E. Somigliana, F. Parazzini.

    The association between alcohol intake and male reproductive function is still controversial. In the frame of a prospective cohort study, designed to investigate the relation between life style and fertility, we performed a cross‐sectional analysis of semen quality.


  • Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    ​Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.


  • Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Use Disorder. A Review.

    ​Henry R. Kranzler, MD; Michael Soyka, MD.

    Alcohol consumption is associated with 88 000 US deaths annually. Although routine screening for heavy alcohol use can identify patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and has been recommended, only 1 in 6 US adults report ever having been asked by a health professional about their drinking behavior. Alcohol use disorder, a problematic pattern of alcohol use accompanied by clinically significant impairment or distress, is present in up to 14% of US adults during a 1-year period, although only about 8% of affected individuals are treated in an alcohol treatment facility.


  • Determinants of Early Alcohol Use In Healthy Adolescents: The Differential Contribution of Neuroimaging and Psychological Factors

    ​Frauke Nees, Jelka Tzschoppe, Christopher J Patrick, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Sabina Steiner, Luise Poustka, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Christian Büchel, Patricia J Conrod, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Jürgen Gallinat, Mark Lathrop, Karl Mann, Eric Artiges, Tomas Paus, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Trevor W Robbins, Marcella Rietschel, Michael N Smolka, Rainer Spanagel, Maren Struve, Eva Loth, Gunter Schumann & Herta Flor.

    Individual variation in reward sensitivity may have an important role in early substance use and subsequent development of substance abuse. This may be especially important during adolescence, a transition period marked by approach behavior and a propensity toward risk taking, novelty seeking and alteration of the social landscape. However, little is known about the relative contribution of personality, behavior, and brain responses for prediction of alcohol use in adolescents. In this study, we applied factor analyses and structural equation modeling to reward-related brain responses assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary incentive delay task.


  • Prevalence of 12-Month Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    ​Bridget F. Grant, PhD1; S. Patricia Chou, PhD; Tulshi D. Saha, PhD1; et al


    Importance  Lack of current and comprehensive trend data derived from a uniform, reliable, and valid source on alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major gap in public health information.
    Objective  To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month alcohol use, 12-month high-risk drinking, 12-month DSM-IV AUD, 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month alcohol users, and 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month high-risk drinkers between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.


  • Alcohol-Induced Changes in Conflict Monitoring and Error Detection as Predictors of Alcohol Use in Late Adolescence

    Ozlem Korucuoglu, Thomas E Gladwin & Reinout W Wiers

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of substance use and related problems. Understanding how exposure to drugs influences the adolescent brain could reveal mechanisms underlying risk for addiction later in life. In the current study, 87 adolescents (16–20-year olds; the local legal drinking age was16, allowing the inclusion of younger subjects than usually possible) underwent EEG measurements during a Go/No-Go task with and without alcohol cues; after placebo and a low dose of alcohol (0.45 g/kg). Conflict monitoring and error detection processes were investigated with the N2 and the error-related negativity (ERN) ERP components.
  • Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine

    Erika Perez, Natalia Quijano-Cardé & Mariella De Biasi 

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both.
  • The Novel μ-Opioid Receptor Antagonist GSK1521498 Decreases Both Alcohol Seeking and Drinking: Evidence from a New Preclinical Model of Alcohol Seeking

    ​Chiara Giuliano, Charles R Goodlett, Daina Economidou, Maria P García-Pardo, David Belin, Trevor W Robbins, Edward T Bullmore & Barry J Everitt

    Distinct environmental and conditioned stimuli influencing ethanol-associated appetitive and consummatory behaviors may jointly contribute to alcohol addiction. To develop an effective translational animal model that illuminates this interaction, daily seeking responses, maintained by alcohol-associated conditioned stimuli (CSs), need to be dissociated from alcohol drinking behavior. For this, we established a procedure whereby alcohol seeking maintained by alcohol-associated CSs is followed by a period during which rats have the opportunity to drink alcohol.
  • Association of the κ-opioid system with alcohol dependence

    ​X Xuei, D Dick, L Flury-Wetherill, H-J Tian, A Agrawal, L Bierut, A Goate, K Bucholz, M Schuckit, J Nurnberger Jr, J Tischfield, S Kuperman, B Porjesz, H Begleiter, T Foroud & H J Edenberg

    Opioid receptors and their endogenous peptide ligands play important roles in the reward and reinforcement of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and alcohol. The binding of dynorphins to the κ-opioid receptor has been shown to produce aversive states, which may prevent the development of reinforcement. We genotyped SNPs throughout OPRK1, encoding the κ-opioid receptor, and PDYN, which encodes its ligand prodynorphin, in a group of 1860 European American individuals from 219 multiplex alcohol dependent families.


  • Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients

    ​Z Sjoerds, S de Wit, W van den Brink, T W Robbins, A T F Beekman, B W J H Penninx & D J Veltm

    Substance dependence is characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite negative consequences. Animal research suggests an underlying imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action control with chronic drug use. However, this imbalance, and its associated neurophysiological mechanisms, has not yet been experimentally investigated in human drug abusers. The aim of the present study therefore was to assess the balance between goal-directed and habit-based learning and its neural correlates in abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. A total of 31 AD patients and 19 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during completion of an instrumental learning task designed to study the balance between goal-directed and habit learning.


  • Evaluation of Drinking Risk Levels as Outcomes in Alcohol Pharmacotherapy Trials. A Secondary Analysis of 3 Randomized Clinical Trials.

    ​Daniel E. Falk, PhD; Stephanie S. O’Malley, PhD; Katie Witkiewitz, PhD; et al

    In this secondary analysis of 3 randomized clinical trials comprising 1169 participants, outcomes based on World Health Organization drinking risk levels, measured in grams of alcohol per day, were obtained. One- and 2-level reductions differentiated medication effects in a manner similar to US Food and Drug Administration–recognized outcomes of abstinence and no heavy drinking days but were achieved by more patients.


  • Microstructural White Matter Alterations in Men With Alcohol Use Disorder and Rats With Excessive Alcohol Consumption During Early Abstinence

    Silvia De Santis, PhD; Patrick Bach, MD; Laura Pérez-Cervera, MSc; et al

    ​Although the detrimental effects of alcohol on the brain are widely acknowledged, observed structural changes are highly heterogeneous, and diagnostic markers for characterizing alcohol-induced brain damage, especially in early abstinence, are lacking. This heterogeneity, likely contributed to by comorbidity factors in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), challenges a direct link of brain alterations to the pathophysiology of alcohol misuse. Translational studies in animal models may help bridge this causal gap.


  • Conventional and genetic evidence on alcohol and vascular disease aetiology: a prospective study of 500 000 men and women in China

    ​Iona Y Millwood*, Robin G Walters*, Xue W Mei, Yu Guo, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Derrick A Bennett, Yiping Chen, Caixia Dong, Ruying Hu, Gang Zhou, Bo Yu, Weifang Jia, Sarah Parish, Robert Clarke, George Davey Smith, Rory Collins, Michael V Holmes, Liming Li†, Richard Peto†, Zhengming Chen†, for the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group‡

    Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in many studies, in comparison with abstinence or with heavier drinking. Studies in east Asia can help determine whether these associations are causal, since two common genetic variants greatly affect alcohol drinking patterns. We used these two variants to assess the relationships between cardiovascular risk and genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake in men, contrasting the findings in men with those in women (few of whom drink).


  • Efficacy of Integrated Exposure Therapy vs Integrated Coping Skills Therapy for Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder. A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ​SonyaB.Norman,PhD; RyanTrim,PhD; MoiraHaller,PhD; BrittanyC.Davis,PhD; UrsulaS.Myers,PhD; PeterJ.Colvonen,PhD; ErikaBlanes,MA; RobertLyons,BS; EmmaY.Siegel,BA; AbigailC.Angkaw,PhD; GregoryJ.Norman,PhD; TinaMayes,PhD

    To compare the efficacy of integrated (ie, targeting both PTSD and alcohol use) prolonged exposure (I-PE) therapy with present-centered integrated coping skills (I-CS) therapy, a more commonly available treatment, in reducing PTSD symptoms and alcohol use.


  • A comparison of gender-linked population cancer risks between alcohol and tobacco: how many cigarettes are there in a bottle of wine?

    ​Theresa J. Hydes, Robyn Burton, Hazel Inskip, Mark A. Bellis and Nick Sheron

    In contrast to our knowledge about the number of cancers attributed to smoking, the number of cancers attributed to alcohol is poorly understood by the public. We estimate the increase in absolute risk of cancer (number of cases per 1000) attributed to moderate levels of alcohol, and compare these to the absolute risk of cancer attributed to low levels of smoking, creating a ‘cigarette-equivalent of population cancer harm’.


  • Varenicline Reduces Context-Induced Relapse to Alcohol-Seeking through Actions in the Nucleus Accumbens

    ​​Franca Lacroix, Annie Pettorelli, Jean-Marie N Maddux, Atyeh Heidari-Jam & Nadia Chaudhri

    Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context.


  • Biobehavioral effects of baclofen in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory study

    ​M Farokhnia, M L Schwandt, M R Lee, J W Bollinger, L A Farinelli, J P Amodio, L Sewell, T A Lionetti, D E Spero & L Leggio

    Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration).


  • Chromatin remodeling — a novel strategy to control excessive alcohol drinking

    ​V Warnault, E Darcq, A Levine, S Barak & D Ron

    Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice.


  • Microstructural White Matter Alterations in Men With Alcohol Use Disorder and Rats With Excessive Alcohol Consumption During Early Abstinence

    ​Silvia De Santis, PhD1; Patrick Bach, MD2; Laura Pérez-Cervera, MSc1; et al

    Although the detrimental effects of alcohol on the brain are widely acknowledged, observed structural changes are highly heterogeneous, and diagnostic markers for characterizing alcohol-induced brain damage, especially in early abstinence, are lacking. This heterogeneity, likely contributed to by comorbidity factors in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), challenges a direct link of brain alterations to the pathophysiology of alcohol misuse. Translational studies in animal models may help bridge this causal gap.


  • Picture Me Drinking: Alcohol-Related Posts by Instagram Influencers Popular Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    ​Hanneke Hendriks1, Danii Wilmsen, Wim van Dalen and Winifred A. Gebhardt​

    Research has shown that young people post a lot of alcohol-related posts (i.e., alcoholposts) on social media and these posts have been shown to increase drinking behaviors. Because social influencers (i.e., individuals with the potential to influence large audiences on social media) may have a strong influence on young people, it is important to know whether and how often they post about alcohol.


  • Chronic alcohol consumption alters extracellular space geometry and transmitter diffusion in the brain - Science Advances 24 Jun 2020: Vol. 6, no. 26

    ​Silvia De Santis, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Raquel Garcia-Hernandez, Lesia Dmytrenko, Lydia Vargova, Ivan Vorisek, Serena Stopponi, Patrick Bach, Peter Kirsch, Falk Kiefer, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Eva Sykova, David Moratal Wolfgang H.Sommer, Santiago Canals


  • Associations between occupation and heavy alcohol consumption in UK adults aged 40–69 years: a cross-sectional study using the UK Biobank –69 years: a cross-sectional study using the UK Biobank
    Andrew Thompson & Munir Pirmohamed

    BMC Public Health volume 21, Article number: 190 (2021); Published 24 February 2021; DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10208-x​ 

    Understanding the relationship between occupation and alcohol use offers opportunities to provide health promotion programmes based on evidence of need. We aimed to determine associations between occupation and heavy alcohol consumption in working individuals aged 40–69 years.
  • Health advice on alcohol consumption in pregnant women in Seville (Spain)

    Gaceta Sanitaria Volume 34, Issue 5, September–October 2020, Pages 449-458; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2018.11.008​

    To analyse to what extent pregnant women remembered having received health advice regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy, what the message they perceived was and whether there is social inequality in this regard.

  • The Impact of Binge Drinking on Mortality and Liver Disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    ​J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020295​

    Whereas excessive alcohol consumption increases liver disease incidence and mortality, evidence on the risk associated with specific drinking patterns is emerging. We assessed the impact of binge drinking on mortality and liver disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. All participants with follow-up between 2013 and 2020 were categorized into one of four drinking pattern groups: “abstinence”, “non-hazardous drinking”, “hazardous but not binge drinking” (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption [AUDIT-C] score ≥ 3 in women and ≥4 in men), and “binge drinking” (≥6 drinks/occasion more than monthly). We estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) for all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality and liver-related events using multivariable quasi-Poisson regression. Among 11,849 individuals (median follow-up 6.8 years), 470 died (incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5–7.8), 37 experienced a liver-related death (0.6/1000, 0.4–0.8), and 239 liver-related events occurred (3.7/1000, 3.2–4.2). Compared to individuals with non-hazardous drinking, those reporting binge drinking were more likely to die (all-cause mortality: aIRR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7; liver-related mortality: 3.6, 0.9–13.9) and to experience a liver-related event (3.8, 2.4–5.8). We observed no difference in outcomes between participants reporting non-hazardous and hazardous without binge drinking. These findings highlight the importance of assessing drinking patterns in clinical routine.

  • Sex Differences in the Neurobiology of Alcohol Use Disorder

    ​Alcohol Research: Current Reviews; Volume 40 Issue 28 October 2020

    Annabelle Flores-Bonilla1 and Heather N. Richardson2

    1Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts

    2Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts

    Sex differences may play a critical role in modulating how chronic or heavy alcohol use impacts the brain to cause the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). AUD is a multifaceted and complex disorder driven by changes in key neurobiological structures that regulate executive function, memory, and stress. A three-stage framework of addiction (binge/intoxication; withdrawal/negative affect; preoccupation/anticipation) has been useful for conceptualizing the complexities of AUD and other addictions. Initially, alcohol drinking causes short-term effects that involve signaling mediated by several neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine, corticotropin releasing factor, and glutamate. With continued intoxication, alcohol leads to dysfunctional behaviors that are thought to be due in part to alterations of these and other neurotransmitter systems, along with alterations in neural pathways connecting prefrontal and limbic structures. Using the three-stage framework, this review highlights examples of research examining sex differences in drinking and differential modulation of neural systems contributing to the development of AUD. New insights addressing the role of sex differences in AUD are advancing the field forward by uncovering the complex interactions that mediate vulnerability.

    Sex Differences in the Neurobiology of Alcohol Use Disorder | Alcohol Research: Current Reviews (nih.gov)

  • Alcohol's Unique Effects on Cognition in Women: A 2020 (Re)view to Envision Future Research and Treatment

    Rosemary Fama,1,2 Anne-Pascale Le Berre,1 and Edith V. Sullivan1

    1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

    2Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California

    Alcohol use and misuse is increasing among women. Although the prevalence of drinking remains higher in men than women, the gender gap is narrowing. This narrative review focuses on the cognitive sequelae of alcohol consumption in women. Studies of acute alcohol effects on cognition indicate that women typically perform worse than men on tasks requiring divided attention, memory, and decision-making. Beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognition have been reported; however, a number of studies have cautioned that other factors may be driving that association. Although chronic heavy drinking affects working memory, visuospatial abilities, balance, emotional processing, and social cognition in women and men, sex differences mark the severity and specific profile of functional deficits. The accelerated or compressed progression of alcohol-related problems and their consequences observed in women relative to men, referred to as “telescoping,” highlights sex differences in the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, cognitive, and psychological consequences of alcohol. Brain volume deficits affecting multiple systems, including frontolimbic and frontocerebellar networks, contribute to impairment. Taken together, sex-related differences highlight the complexity of this chronic disease in women and underscore the relevance of examining the roles of age, drinking patterns, duration of abstinence, medical history, and psychiatric comorbidities in defining and understanding alcohol-related cognitive impairment.

    Alcohol's Unique Effects on Cognition in Women: A 2020 (Re)view to Envision Future Research and Treatment | Alcohol Research: Current Reviews (nih.gov)​

  • Alcohol Use Disorder in the Age of Technology: A Review of Wearable Biosensors in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment

    Rachel E. Davis-Martin1*, Sheila M. Alessi2 and Edwin D. Boudreaux1

    1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States

    2Department of Medicine, Calhoun Cardiology Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States

    Biosensors enable observation and understanding of latent physiological occurrences otherwise unknown or invasively detected. Wearable biosensors monitoring physiological constructs across a wide variety of mental and physical health conditions have become an important trend in innovative research methodologies. Within substance use research, explorations of biosensor technology commonly focus on identifying physiological indicators of intoxication to increase understanding of addiction etiology and to inform treatment recommendations. In this review, we examine the state of research in this area as it pertains to treatment of alcohol use disorders specifically highlighting the gaps in our current knowledge with recommendations for future research. 

    Frontiers | Alcohol Use Disorder in the Age of Technology: A Review of Wearable Biosensors in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment | Psychiatry (frontiersin.org)​