Getting to Zero Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities: A Comprehensive Approach to a Persistent Problem
Steven M. Teutsch, Amy Geller, and Yamrot Negussie, Editors; Committee onAccelerating Progress to Reduce Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities; Board onPopulation Health and Public Health Practice; Health and Medicine Division;National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
UK adult drinking behaviours and attitudes. Findings from Drinkaware Monitor 2017
A genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence
Laura J. Bierut, Arpana Agrawal, Kathleen K. Bucholz, Kimberly F. Doheny, Cathy Laurie, Elizabeth Pugh, Sherri Fisher, Louis Fox, William Howells, Sarah Bertelsen, Anthony L. Hinrichs, Laura Almasy, Naomi Breslau, Robert C. Culverhouse, Danielle M. Dick, Howard J. Edenberg, Tatiana Foroud, Richard A. Grucza, Dorothy Hatsukami, Victor Hesselbrock, Eric O. Johnson, John Kramer, Robert F. Krueger, Samuel Kuperman, Michael Lynskey, Karl Mann, Rosalind J. Neuman, Markus M. Nöthen, John I. Nurnberger, Bernice Porjesz, Monika Ridinger, Nancy L. Saccone, Scott F. Saccone, Marc A. Schuckit, Jay A. Tischfield, Jen C. Wang, Marcella Rietschel, Alison M. Goate, John P. Rice and as part of the Gene, Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Consortium
PNAS 2010 March, 107 (11) 5082-5087. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0911109107
Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, selfselecting online survey
Will Lawn, Jaime E. Hallak, Jose A. Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J. Barratt, Jason A. Ferris, Adam R. Winstock8 & Celia J. A. Morgan.
Nature - Scientific Reports | 7: 15201 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-14700-6 .
Convergent functional genomic studies of omega-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism
H Le-Niculescu, N J Case, L Hulvershorn, S D Patel, D Bowker, J Gupta, R Bell, H J Edenberg, M T Tsuang, R Kuczenski, M A Geyer, Z A Rodd, and A B Niculescu.
Transl Psychiatry. 2011 Apr; 1(4): e4.
Published online 2011 Apr 26. doi: 10.1038/tp.2011.1
Lisbon Addictions 2017 - apresentações - álcool
The Origin of Spousal Resemblance for Alcohol Use Disorder
Neural Correlates of Alcohol-Approach Bias in Alcohol Addiction: the Spirit is Willing but the Flesh is Weak for Spirits
Corinde E Wiers, Christine Stelzel, Soyoung Q Park, Christiane K Gawron, Vera U Ludwig, Stefan Gutwinski, Andreas Heinz, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter & Felix Bermpohl
Neuropsychopharmacology volume 39, pages 688–697 (2014)
Behavioral studies have shown an alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients: the automatic tendency to faster approach than avoid alcohol compared with neutral cues, which has been associated with craving and relapse.
Alcohol and nicotine codependence-associated DNA methylation changes in promoter regions of addiction-related genes
Hongqin Xu, Fan Wang, Henry R. Kranzler, Joel Gelernter & Huiping Zhang
Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 41816 (2017)
Altered DNA methylation in addiction-related genes may modify the susceptibility to alcohol or drug dependence (AD or ND). We profiled peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 addiction-related genes in 256 African Americans (AAs) (117 cases with AD-ND codependence and 139 controls) and 196 European Americans (103 cases with AD-ND codependence and 93 controls) using Illumina’s GoldenGate DNA methylation array assays.
Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey
Will Lawn, Jaime E. Hallak, Jose A. Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J. Barratt, Jason A. Ferris, Adam R. Winstock & Celia J. A. Morgan
Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 15201 (2017)
Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901).
Bidirectional Modulation of Alcohol-Associated Memory Reconsolidation through Manipulation of Adrenergic Signaling
Moritz J W Schramm, Barry J Everitt & Amy L Milton
Neuropsychopharmacology volume 41, pages 1103–1111 (2016)
Alcohol addiction is a problem of great societal concern, for which there is scope to improve current treatments. One potential new treatment for alcohol addiction is based on disrupting the reconsolidation of the maladaptive Pavlovian memories that can precipitate relapse to drug-seeking behavior.
Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study
Anya Topiwala, clinical lecturer in old age psychiatry, Charlotte L Allan, academic clinical lecturer in old age psychiatry, Vyara Valkanova, specialist registrar in old age psychiatry, Enikő Zsoldos, postdoctoral scientist, Nicola Filippini, postdoctoral scientist, Claire Sexton, postdoctoral scientist, Abda Mahmood, research assistant, Peggy Fooks, medical student, Archana Singh-Manoux, professor of epidemiology and public health, Clare E Mackay, associate professor,1 Mika Kivimäki, professor, and Klaus P Ebmeier, professor of old age psychiatry.
Objectives: To investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption has a favourable or adverse association or no association with brain structure and function.
Contribution of alcohol use disorders to the burden of dementia in France 2008–13: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Michaël Schwarzinger, MD'Correspondence information about the author MD Michaël SchwarzingerEmail the author MD Michaël Schwarzinger, Prof Bruce G Pollock, MD, Omer S M Hasan, BA, Carole Dufouil, PhD, Prof Jürgen Rehm, PhD for the show QalyDays Study Group.
Dementia is a prevalent condition, affecting 5–7% of people aged 60 years and older, and a leading cause of disability in people aged 60 years and older globally. We aimed to examine the association between alcohol use disorders and dementia risk, with an emphasis on early-onset dementia (<65 years).
The Role of Aging, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Comorbidity in Alcoholism Cortical Compromise
Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School AdolescentsFive-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial
Alcohol Text Messages: A Developmental Study
Maryanne RobinsonEmail authorR. B. WilkinsonR. FletcherR. BrunoA. L. BakerL. MaherJ. WroeA. J. Dunlop
Risky paternal alcohol use is associated with maternal alcohol use during pregnancy, poor fetal and infant outcomes, domestic violence and depression. This study developed 30 SMS text messages about alcohol for fathers who drink at risky levels. The text messages were developed using two motivational styles: messages presented in a second person voice and the same messages presented in a child’s voice.
Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies
Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease.
Entorno urbano de alcohol: un estudio sobre disponibilidad, promoción y visibilidad del consumo en barrios de Barcelona
Joan R. Villalbí, Albert Espelt, Xisca Sureda, Marina Bosque-Prous, Ester Teixidó-Compañó, Susanna Puigcorbé, Manuel Franco, M. Teresa Brugal.
Se describe la presencia de alcohol en el espacio público, valorando los establecimientos que lo ofrecen, la publicidad, y los indicios de consumo, como factores que pueden inducir el consumo.
‘Nothing can be done until everything is done’: the use of complexity arguments by food, beverage, alcohol and gambling industries
Mark Petticrew, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Cécile Knai, Rebecca Cassidy, Nason Maani Hessari,
James Thomas, Heide Weishaar.
Corporations use a range of strategies to dispute their role in causing public health harms and to limit the scope of effective public health interventions.
Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data
Dr Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, FFPH, Elise Whitley, PhD, Jim Lewsey, PhD, Linsay Gray, PhD, Prof Alastair H Leyland, PhD.
Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors.
Do women with complex alcohol and other drug use histories want women-only residential treatment?
Joanne Neale, Charlotte N. E. Tompkins , Alison D. Marshall, Carla Treloar & John Strang
Background: Women-only addiction services tend to be provided on a poorly evidenced assumption that women want single-sex treatment. We draw upon women’s expectations and experiences of women-only residential rehabilitation to
stimulate debate on this issue.
Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits
Rafael Renteria, Emily T. Baltz & Christina M. Gremel
Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through
action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely
focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from
ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction.
The neural correlates of the unified percept of alcohol-related craving: a fMRI and EEG study
Yuefeng Huang, Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Stefan Sunaert & Sven Vanneste
Alcohol addiction is accompanied by aberrant neural activity. Previously, task-based fMRI and resting-state EEG studies have revealed that craving, a critical component of addiction, is linked to abnormal activity in cortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), etc. In this study, we combine these two imaging techniques to investigate a group of alcohol-addicted patients and provide convergent evidence for the neural correlates of craving not only in alcohol but substance abuse in general.
Proteomic Approaches and Identification of Novel Therapeutic Targets for Alcoholism
Giorgio Gorini, R Adron Harris & R Dayne Mayfield
Recent studies have shown that gene regulation is far more complex than previously believed and does not completely explain changes at the protein level. Therefore, the direct study of the proteome, considerably different in both complexity and dynamicity to the genome/transcriptome, has provided unique insights to an increasing number of researchers.
Association of State Alcohol Policies With Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Among US Adults
Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism
Elise E DeVito, Shashwath A Meda, Rachel Jiantonio, Marc N Potenza, John H Krystal & Godfrey D Pearlson.
Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females.
Neural connectivity in Internet gaming disorder and alcohol use disorder: A resting-state EEG coherence study
Su Mi Park, Ji Yoon Lee, Yeon Jin Kim, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Yeon Jung, Bo Kyung Sohn, Dai Jin Kim & Jung-Seok Choi.
The present study compared neural connectivity and the level of phasic synchronization between neural populations in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) coherence analyses.
Epidemiology of DSM-5 Alcohol Use DisorderResults From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III
Bridget F. Grant, PhD1; Risë B. Goldstein, PhD, MPH1; Tulshi D. Saha, PhD1; et al
National epidemiologic information from recently collected data on the new DSM-5 classification of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using a reliable, valid, and uniform data source is needed.
Alcohol intake and semen variables: cross‐sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study of men referring to an Italian Fertility Clinic
E. Ricci, S. Noli, S. Ferrari, I. La Vecchia, S. Cipriani, V. De Cosmi, E. Somigliana, F. Parazzini.
The association between alcohol intake and male reproductive function is still controversial. In the frame of a prospective cohort study, designed to investigate the relation between life style and fertility, we performed a cross‐sectional analysis of semen quality.
Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.
Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Use Disorder. A Review.
Determinants of Early Alcohol Use In Healthy Adolescents: The Differential Contribution of Neuroimaging and Psychological Factors
Frauke Nees, Jelka Tzschoppe, Christopher J Patrick, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Sabina Steiner, Luise Poustka, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Christian Büchel, Patricia J Conrod, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Jürgen Gallinat, Mark Lathrop, Karl Mann, Eric Artiges, Tomas Paus, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Trevor W Robbins, Marcella Rietschel, Michael N Smolka, Rainer Spanagel, Maren Struve, Eva Loth, Gunter Schumann & Herta Flor.
Individual variation in reward sensitivity may have an important role in early substance use and subsequent development of substance abuse. This may be especially important during adolescence, a transition period marked by approach behavior and a propensity toward risk taking, novelty seeking and alteration of the social landscape. However, little is known about the relative contribution of personality, behavior, and brain responses for prediction of alcohol use in adolescents. In this study, we applied factor analyses and structural equation modeling to reward-related brain responses assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary incentive delay task.
Prevalence of 12-Month Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Bridget F. Grant, PhD1; S. Patricia Chou, PhD; Tulshi D. Saha, PhD1; et al
Importance Lack of current and comprehensive trend data derived from a uniform, reliable, and valid source on alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major gap in public health information.
Objective To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month alcohol use, 12-month high-risk drinking, 12-month DSM-IV AUD, 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month alcohol users, and 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month high-risk drinkers between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.
Alcohol-Induced Changes in Conflict Monitoring and Error Detection as Predictors of Alcohol Use in Late Adolescence
Ozlem Korucuoglu, Thomas E Gladwin & Reinout W Wiers
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of substance use and related problems. Understanding how exposure to drugs influences the adolescent brain could reveal mechanisms underlying risk for addiction later in life. In the current study, 87 adolescents (16–20-year olds; the local legal drinking age was16, allowing the inclusion of younger subjects than usually possible) underwent EEG measurements during a Go/No-Go task with and without alcohol cues; after placebo and a low dose of alcohol (0.45 g/kg). Conflict monitoring and error detection processes were investigated with the N2 and the error-related negativity (ERN) ERP components.
Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine
Erika Perez, Natalia Quijano-Cardé & Mariella De Biasi
Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both.
The Novel μ-Opioid Receptor Antagonist GSK1521498 Decreases Both Alcohol Seeking and Drinking: Evidence from a New Preclinical Model of Alcohol Seeking
Chiara Giuliano, Charles R Goodlett, Daina Economidou, Maria P García-Pardo, David Belin, Trevor W Robbins, Edward T Bullmore & Barry J Everitt
Distinct environmental and conditioned stimuli influencing ethanol-associated appetitive and consummatory behaviors may jointly contribute to alcohol addiction. To develop an effective translational animal model that illuminates this interaction, daily seeking responses, maintained by alcohol-associated conditioned stimuli (CSs), need to be dissociated from alcohol drinking behavior. For this, we established a procedure whereby alcohol seeking maintained by alcohol-associated CSs is followed by a period during which rats have the opportunity to drink alcohol.
Association of the κ-opioid system with alcohol dependence
X Xuei, D Dick, L Flury-Wetherill, H-J Tian, A Agrawal, L Bierut, A Goate, K Bucholz, M Schuckit, J Nurnberger Jr, J Tischfield, S Kuperman, B Porjesz, H Begleiter, T Foroud & H J Edenberg
Opioid receptors and their endogenous peptide ligands play important roles in the reward and reinforcement of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and alcohol. The binding of dynorphins to the κ-opioid receptor has been shown to produce aversive states, which may prevent the development of reinforcement. We genotyped SNPs throughout OPRK1, encoding the κ-opioid receptor, and PDYN, which encodes its ligand prodynorphin, in a group of 1860 European American individuals from 219 multiplex alcohol dependent families.
Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients
Z Sjoerds, S de Wit, W van den Brink, T W Robbins, A T F Beekman, B W J H Penninx & D J Veltm
Substance dependence is characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite negative consequences. Animal research suggests an underlying imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action control with chronic drug use. However, this imbalance, and its associated neurophysiological mechanisms, has not yet been experimentally investigated in human drug abusers. The aim of the present study therefore was to assess the balance between goal-directed and habit-based learning and its neural correlates in abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. A total of 31 AD patients and 19 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during completion of an instrumental learning task designed to study the balance between goal-directed and habit learning.
Evaluation of Drinking Risk Levels as Outcomes in Alcohol Pharmacotherapy Trials. A Secondary Analysis of 3 Randomized Clinical Trials.
Microstructural White Matter Alterations in Men With Alcohol Use Disorder and Rats With Excessive Alcohol Consumption During Early Abstinence
Conventional and genetic evidence on alcohol and vascular disease aetiology: a prospective study of 500 000 men and women in China
Iona Y Millwood*, Robin G Walters*, Xue W Mei, Yu Guo, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Derrick A Bennett, Yiping Chen, Caixia Dong, Ruying Hu, Gang Zhou, Bo Yu, Weifang Jia, Sarah Parish, Robert Clarke, George Davey Smith, Rory Collins, Michael V Holmes, Liming Li†, Richard Peto†, Zhengming Chen†, for the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group‡
Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in many studies, in comparison with abstinence or with heavier drinking. Studies in east Asia can help determine whether these associations are causal, since two common genetic variants greatly affect alcohol drinking patterns. We used these two variants to assess the relationships between cardiovascular risk and genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake in men, contrasting the findings in men with those in women (few of whom drink).
Efficacy of Integrated Exposure Therapy vs Integrated Coping Skills Therapy for Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder. A Randomized Clinical Trial
SonyaB.Norman,PhD; RyanTrim,PhD; MoiraHaller,PhD; BrittanyC.Davis,PhD; UrsulaS.Myers,PhD; PeterJ.Colvonen,PhD; ErikaBlanes,MA; RobertLyons,BS; EmmaY.Siegel,BA; AbigailC.Angkaw,PhD; GregoryJ.Norman,PhD; TinaMayes,PhD
To compare the efficacy of integrated (ie, targeting both PTSD and alcohol use) prolonged exposure (I-PE) therapy with present-centered integrated coping skills (I-CS) therapy, a more commonly available treatment, in reducing PTSD symptoms and alcohol use.
A comparison of gender-linked population cancer risks between alcohol and tobacco: how many cigarettes are there in a bottle of wine?
Theresa J. Hydes, Robyn Burton, Hazel Inskip, Mark A. Bellis and Nick Sheron
In contrast to our knowledge about the number of cancers attributed to smoking, the number of cancers attributed to alcohol is poorly understood by the public. We estimate the increase in absolute risk of cancer (number of cases per 1000) attributed to moderate levels of alcohol, and compare these to the absolute risk of cancer attributed to low levels of smoking, creating a ‘cigarette-equivalent of population cancer harm’.
Varenicline Reduces Context-Induced Relapse to Alcohol-Seeking through Actions in the Nucleus Accumbens
Franca Lacroix, Annie Pettorelli, Jean-Marie N Maddux, Atyeh Heidari-Jam & Nadia Chaudhri
Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context.
Biobehavioral effects of baclofen in anxious alcohol-dependent individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory study
M Farokhnia, M L Schwandt, M R Lee, J W Bollinger, L A Farinelli, J P Amodio, L Sewell, T A Lionetti, D E Spero & L Leggio
Baclofen has been suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, but the clinical data are conflicting. Here we investigated the biobehavioral effects of baclofen in a sample of anxious alcohol-dependent individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals with high trait anxiety (N=34). Participants received baclofen (30 mg per day) or placebo for at least 8 days, then performed an experimental session consisting of alcohol cue-reactivity followed by alcohol administration procedure (alcohol priming, then alcohol self-administration).
Chromatin remodeling — a novel strategy to control excessive alcohol drinking
V Warnault, E Darcq, A Levine, S Barak & D Ron
Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice.
Microstructural White Matter Alterations in Men With Alcohol Use Disorder and Rats With Excessive Alcohol Consumption During Early Abstinence